Category Archives: Canada: culture

De Tocqueville in Canada: the end of his travels

Village of Beaufort, near Quebec, 29 August 1831 Today we went on horseback to visit the countryside without a guide. In the commune of Beaufort, two leagues from Quebec, we saw the people coming out of church. Their dress indicated … Continue reading

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De Tocqueville in Canada: Montreal and Quebec

Conversation with Mr. Quiblier, Father Superior of the Seminary at Montreal, 24 August 1831 Mr. Quiblier struck us as a good-hearted and enlightened cleric. He is a Frenchman who came from France a few years ago. He. – I do … Continue reading

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Alexis de Tocqueville and Lower Canada

In 1831-1832, Alexis de Tocqueville spent time in America during which he wrote his De la démocratie en Amérique, a critique of the socio-political nature of American civilisation that is widely regarded as a classic work of political theory. While … Continue reading

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The Militia and French Canada 1760-1855

  The militia has an important role in Canada’s military history and was grounded in the principle that all citizens within the community had responsibility for its defence. [1] Associated with Quebec but particularly with New France, from the outset … Continue reading

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Development of Lower Canadian nationalism

Four issues contributed to the rise of nationalism in Lower Canada after 1791. [1] The first was the emergence of the French Canadian professional class, which forcefully embraced French revolutionary ideas and their role as leaders in their communities.[2] In … Continue reading

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What economic crisis?

Historians have long debated whether poor peasant farming methods in Lower Canada led to an agricultural crisis by the early nineteenth century and whether such this may have led to social and political unrest in the 1830s.[1] In the 1790s, … Continue reading

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Lower Canadian newspapers: partisanship in action

In the debate on the third reading of the Lower Canada Government Bill in 1839, Daniel O’Connell commenting on the role of Orange lodges, said He found the number of these lodges gazetted, he supposed officially—at all events inserted (apparently … Continue reading

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Newspapers in Lower Canada

The first newspapers in Quebec, La Gazette de Québec (1764) and The Montreal Gazette (1785) were generally bilingual and published to inform tradesmen of the price of food products and the arrivals of trading vessels. At the beginning of the … Continue reading

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Patriote thinking and the French language

The rebellions in 1837 and 1838 represent a major symbolic occasion in the collective memory of Quebec affirming Québécois national sentiments. In their fight for proper French Canadian political representation, deputies from the Parti Patriote, driven by the liberal ideal … Continue reading

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A cultural context

The conquest of Canada in 1760 and the Treaty of Paris in 1763 ended over a century and a half of French rule. Though French Canadians were a significant majority in the new British colony, over the next century their … Continue reading

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