Category Archives: Nineteenth century politics

Peterloo: 200th anniversary

With the 200th anniversary of the unprovoked attack by the forces of the local state on an unarmed crowd in Manchester while there is no question about the significance of the event, there are important questions about what the impact … Continue reading

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Posted in Chartism, Class, Government and reform, Nineteenth century politics, Nineteenth century society, Women and politics, Working Class | Tagged , , , ,

The First Industrial Nation

In the latter part of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century, Britain underwent what historians have called an ‘industrial revolution’ with factories pouring out goods, chimneys polluting the air, escalating exports and productivity spiralling upwards. This … Continue reading

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Posted in Economic developments, Nineteenth century politics, Nineteenth century society | Tagged , , , , ,

How did Palmerston secure British interests 1830-1841?

Henry John Temple, Lord Palmerston, became the Whig Foreign Secretary in late 1830. Born in 1784, Palmerston ­entered Parliament in 1807. In 1809, he became Secretary at War, without a seat in the cabinet. He remained at the War Office … Continue reading

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How did Canning secure British interests 1822 -1830?

George Canning had already held the post between 1807 and 1809. Only his unwillingness to serve with Castlereagh prevented his reappointment in July 1812. By 1816, Canning and Castlereagh appeared to have made up their differences, at least outwardly, and … Continue reading

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Radicalism and Chartism 1790-1860

Just Published Preparing this book for publication has taken me considerably longer than I anticipated.  This was largely my own doing since, instead of just joining the two books together, I decided to effectively rewrite them taking account of the … Continue reading

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Posted in Chartism, Nineteenth century politics, Nineteenth century society, Nineteenth century women

British Foreign Policy and Castlereagh

After the defeat of France in 1814 and 1815, Britain played a central role in redrawing the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna. 1814-1815 Congress of Vienna 1818 Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle 1820 Congress at Troppau 1821 Congress at … Continue reading

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Posted in Nineteenth century politics, Uncategorized | Tagged ,

My Books and other publications

Those publications with an asterisk (*) were co-written with C.W. Daniels. This list does not include editorials for Teaching History, book reviews or unpublished papers. Neither does it include the two series of books for which I have been joint-editor: … Continue reading

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Posted in Australia, Autobiographical fragments, Books, Canadian history, Nineteenth century politics, Nineteenth century society, Nineteenth century women, The Normans

From Peace to Victory: Amiens to Waterloo 1802-1815

The Peace of Amiens, negotiated by Hawkesbury (later Lord Liverpool) and Cornwallis and ratified by Parliament in May 1802, received a poor press from contemporaries and subsequently from historians. The surren­der of Austria deprived Britain of any leverage in Europe … Continue reading

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Posted in Books, Nineteenth century politics, Nineteenth century society | Tagged , , , ,

Why did Britain not win the war with France 1793 and 1802?

The outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 was initially welcomed by most politicians. The Whigs saw it as the dawn of liberty. For Pitt, the revolution would be a useful distraction for Britain’s major rival. Edmund Burke found in … Continue reading

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Posted in Books, Nineteenth century politics, Uncategorized | Tagged , , ,

Recollections of Victorian Birmingham

This book offers readers an absorbing portrait of Birmingham’s nineteenth century. It provides eyewitness accounts of the main events and personalities of the time. These twenty-five autobiographical articles were originally published in the Birmingham Gazette and Express in 1907-9, but … Continue reading

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Posted in Nineteenth century politics, Nineteenth century society | Tagged , , ,

What were British foreign interests between 1793 and 1841?

In the fifty-four years before 1793, Britain had fought three major wars with France lasting some twenty-three years. Britain could not ignore France and the threat to European security posed by the expansion of the French Revolution. Lord Auckland declared … Continue reading

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170th Anniversary of Kennington Common meeting 10 April 1848

The National Charter Association (NCA) Executive, its funds depleted, had little control over the events in early March and found itself having to improvise to keep up with the popular mood. On 18 March, it announced that the National Petition … Continue reading

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Posted in Chartism, Narrative, Nineteenth century politics | Tagged , , ,

What were the social and economic effects of the Famine?

The ‘Great Famine’ began unexpectedly in the late summer of 1845. By September, potatoes were rotting in the ground and within a month blight was spreading rapidly. Three-quarters of the country’s crop, the chief food for some three million people … Continue reading

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Posted in Nineteenth century politics, Nineteenth century society, Sir Robert Peel | Tagged , ,

Why was Ireland so important in Peel’s career?

The Conservative victory in 1841 brought the conflict between Peel and O’Connell that had festered for twenty-years centre stage. Peel was not prepared to compromise on Repeal of the Act of Union. However, he recognised the need to build confidence … Continue reading

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Posted in Sir Robert Peel | Tagged , , ,

Why was Catholic Emancipation such a contentious issue?

The Catholic question was left unresolved by Union and until 1823 the issue stagnated. There were two main reasons why the campaign for Catholic Emancipation before the formation of the Catholic Association by Daniel O’Connell in 1823-1824 made little headway. … Continue reading

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Posted in Nineteenth century politics, Nineteenth century society, Uncategorized